Sunrays shine through the trees at a tea plantation in Java, Indonesia.

Paper is the 4th largest industrial source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States.

Deforestation accounts for 25% of human caused C02 emissions.

When paper degrades in a landfill it releases methane, a greenhouse gas emission that is 23 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Globally, over 40% of the industrial wood harvest is used to make paper.

Between 7 and 11% of the world's terrestrial biospheric carbon is stored in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

Pulp and paper account for 50% of Indonesia’s exports of forest products.

Over the course of its lifecycle, postconsumer recycled fiber requires 30-40% less energy than virgin fiber.

Between 7 and 11% of the world's terrestrial biospheric carbon is stored in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

Pulp and paper account for 50% of Indonesia's exports of forest products.

In 2010, it is expected that 25% of global pulp exports will be from South America.

The southeast U.S. is the largest paper producing region in the world. Already 15% of the forest (32 million acres) consists of single-species tree plantations.


Southeast US
Canadian Boreal
South America
Support the Boreal Conservation Framework
FBoreal Songbird Initiative
Canadian Boreal Initiative
Canadian Boreal Initiative
Boreal Reports and Articles
Boreal Reports and Articles

Endangered Forests - Indonesia


The rainforests of Indonesia are the most biodiverse in the world. Surprisingly, pulp and paper accounts for about 50% of forest exports from Indonesia where about 4.5 million acres are logged each year.

Much of this logging occurs illegally, and an even larger portion is conducted in an unsustainable manner. Indonesia’s diverse tropical forests support an ecosystem that contains 10% of the earth’s flowering plant species, 12% of all mammal species, 17% of all reptile and amphibian species, and 17% of all bird species. These forests also provide habitat for some of the world’s most endangered species including orangutan, Sumatran rhinoceroses and Sumatran tigers.



Tens of millions of people also rely on these forests for a traditional means of sustenance. Though Indonesia’s constitution specifically acknowledges the rights of local communities to practice traditional forest management, many communities have been forced off their land by logging companies. Protests from villagers have been suppressed, often violently, by police and military officials with close financial ties to the logging industry. Human Rights Watch has issued a report detailing human rights abuses associated with Indonesia’s pulp and paper industry.

As is detailed in the report Indonesia Under Pressure, U.S. publishers printing books in Asia or using newsprint manufactured there are likely to be using paper sourced from Indonesia’s rainforests. More information about Indonesia and ways publishers can minimize impacts in endangered forests are available at the links below.

Relevant Resources

Presentations from the BIEC Roundtable: Indonesian Pulp and Paper and Overseas Manufacturing: Addressing Risks and Developing Solutions On October 21, 2010, the Book Industry Environmental Council hosted a roundtable for U.S. publishers and Asian printers and Print brokers to discuss the risks associated with pulp and paper from Indonesia. Below are combined notes from the discussion groups as well as the PowerPoint presentations from each of the presenters:
Indonesia Roundtable Discussion Notes (pdf)
Christopher Barr, Woods and Wayside International (ppt)
Corey Brinkema, FSC US (ppt)
Lafcadio Cortesi, Rainforest Action Network (ppt)
Lisa Serra, Scholastic (ppt)

Watch the GPI Webcast: The Challenges and Opportunities of Printing in Asia

Slides From GPI Webcast: The Challenges and Opportunities of Printing in Asia

GPI Overseas Paper Risk Analysis Tool:

Eyes on the Forest Report: Business as Usual in Riau, Sumatra: Pulp Industry Continues Clearance of Natural Forest (PDF)

Rainforest Action Network Report: Turning the Page on Rainforest Destruction (PDF)

WWF Report: Deforestation, Forest Degradation, Biodiversity Loss and CO2 Emissions in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia

WWF Paper Toolbox

Greenpeace Report: "How Sinar Mas is Pulping the planet" (PDF)

Asian Pulp & Paper Summary Factsheet: The True Price of Low-Cost Paper, A Brief for U.S. Companies about Sinar Mas Group/Asia Pulp & Paper

Suggested Contract Language for Overseas Suppliers (Coming Soon)

Supplier Footprint Survey-Indonesia A survey publishers can provide to suppliers to gain a deeper understanding of the suppliers footprint on Indonesia's Endangered Forests

Guidelines for Printing in Asia Recommended guidelines for publishers who print books in Asia, or source paper from Asia.

Indonesia Under Pressure  A Report developed by the Green Press Initiative illustrating the environmental and social impacts that occur in Indonesia as a result of printing books in, or sourcing newsprint from Asia.

Banks Pulp and People: Impacts in Indonesia  An In depth look at the pulp and paper industry, its social and environmental impacts around the world and the role banks play in financing and encouraging unsustainable practices.

“Forest Loss in Sumatra Becomes a Global Issue”  An article from the New York Times which looks at the pulp and paper industry’s role in deforestation in Indonesia, and the resulting impacts on climate change.

Without Remedy: Human Rights Abuses and Indonesia’s Pulp and Paper Industry  A detailed report on the human rights abuses that occur in Indonesia as a result of corrupt practices in the country’s pulp and paper industry.



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